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What Are the Different Types of Lithium Batteries

Different Types of Lithium Batteries

Lithium battery is a type of rechargeable battery that uses graphite or other carbon materials as the negative electrode and lithium-containing compounds as the positive electrode. It is a type of battery that uses lithium metal or lithium alloy as the positive/negative electrode material and uses a non-aqueous electrolyte solution. What are the different types of lithium batteries? Let’s find out by reading the following.

Classification of lithium batteries

1. Classification by appearance

(1) Cylindrical lithium battery

Cylindrical lithium-ion battery, its model name is generally 5 digits, the first two digits are the diameter of the battery, the middle two digits are the height of the battery, and the last digit 0 represents the cylindrical shape, the unit is millimeter. The most commonly used cylindrical lithium batteries:

  • 18650 lithium battery
  • 14500 lithium battery
  • 18500 lithium battery
  • 21700 lithium battery
  • 26650 lithium battery
  • 32650 (32700) lithium battery
What Are the Different Types of Lithium Batteries- Cylindrical lithium battery

(2) Square lithium battery

Square lithium battery usually refers to aluminum shell or steel shell square lithium battery, which is widely used in exploration and mapping, medical equipment, and portable testing equipment.

2. Classification by shell

(1) Steel shell lithium battery

Most early lithium-ion batteries were steel shell. Because the steel shell is heavy and has poor safety, but the steel has strong stability, many manufacturers later optimized the design structure through safety valves, PTC and other devices, greatly improving its safety performance. Some directly replaced the steel shell with aluminum shell and soft pack, such as the current mobile phone battery.

(2) Aluminum shell lithium battery

Aluminum shell lithium ion battery is lighter and slightly safer than steel shell lithium ion battery.

(3) Soft package lithium battery

Soft package lithium ion battery is gradually expanding its market share due to its light weight, low mold cost and high safety.

3. Classification by positive electrode material

There are currently four types of positive electrode materials used in lithium ion batteries:

  • Lithium Cobaltate Battery
  • Lithium Manganate Battery
  • LifePo4 Battery
  • Ternary Lithium Battery
ItemsLithium Cobaltate BatteryTernary Lithium BatteryLithium Manganate BatteryLifePo4 Battery
Tap density (g/cm3)2.8~3.0 2.0~2.3 2.2~2.4 1.0~1.4
Specific surface area (m2/g)0.4~0.6 0.2~0.4 0.4~0.8 12~20
Gram capacity (mAh/g)135~140 140~180 90~100130~140
Voltage platform (V)3.7 3.6 3.7 3.2
Cycle performance≥500 times ≥500 times ≥300 times ≥2000 times
Safety performancePoor Good Good Excellent
Application areasSmall and medium batteries Small batteries/small power batteries Power batteries, low-cost batteries Power batteries/ultra-large capacity power supplies
The comparison of the properties of lithium-ion battery positive electrode materials is shown in the table above.

4. Sort by electrolyte

  • Liquid lithium-ion battery: Liquid lithium-ion batteries use a liquid electrolyte, which is an organic solvent + lithium salt.
  • Polymer lithium-ion battery: Polymer lithium-ion batteries are replaced by solid polymer electrolytes, which can be “dry” or “colloidal”, and most polymer colloidal electrolytes are currently used. The main matrix of the polymer is HFP-PVDF, PEO, PAN and PMMA.
  • All-solid-state lithium-ion battery: “All-solid-state lithium battery” is a lithium battery that uses electrodes and electrolyte materials in a solid state and does not contain any liquid components within the operating temperature range, so the full name is “all-solid-state electrolyte lithium battery”.

Application field of lithium battery

  • Consumer goods: Mainly used in digital products, mobile phones, mobile power, notebook and other electronic equipment. Commonly used are 18650 lithium batteries, lithium polymer batteries.
  • Industrial sector: Mainly used in medical electronics, photovoltaic energy storage, railway infrastructure, security communications, exploration and mapping and other fields. Commonly used are energy storage/power lithium batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries, lithium polymer batteries, 18650 lithium batteries.
  • Special areas: It is mainly used in aerospace, naval ships, satellite navigation, high energy physics and other fields. Commonly used are ultra-low temperature lithium batteries, high temperature lithium batteries, lithium titanate batteries, explosion-proof lithium batteries and so on.

We are a professional lithium battery manufacturer, committed to providing high quality lithium battery products to meet the needs of various applications. Contact us to purchase lithium batteries for more information and customized solutions.

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