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Introduction different types of inverters

In this paper, we will introduce the different types of inverters and categorize them based on various factors such as output phase, waveform, circuit principle, installation usage, and charging function. It is hoped that people will be able to differentiate in this way.

Categorized by inverter output phase:

(1) Single phase inverter

Single phase inverter is to convert DC inverter to AC output, single-phase inverter is to convert the output AC voltage to single-phase, such as AC 220V or 230V.

(2) Three phase inverter

Three phase inverter is to convert the output AC voltage for three-phase, for example, AC 380V or 400V, three-phase electricity is composed of three AC potentials with the same frequency, equal amplitude, and phase difference of 120°.

Single-Phase-Inverter-Connected-Home
Three-Phase-Inverter-Connected-Home

Classified by output waveform:

(1) Square wave output inverter

A square wave output voltage inverter is a common power electronic device that is used to convert a DC power supply to an AC power supply. Its output voltage has a square wave shape, hence its name, square wave output voltage inverter.

(2) Step wave output inverter

The output voltage waveform of stepped wave inverter is stepped waveform, and the advantage of stepped wave inverter is that the output waveform is close to sinusoidal waveform, which is significantly improved than square waveform, and the content of high harmonic is reduced. When the steps of the stepped waveform reaches more than 16 steps, the output waveform is quasi-sinusoidal, and the efficiency of the whole machine is higher.

(3) Sine wave output inverter

A sine wave inverter primary function is to convert DC electrical energy (e.g., derived from a power cell or battery) into AC power (typically 220V, 50Hz sine wave), a conversion process that is critical for applications that require a stable, pure AC power source. 12

Classified according to circuit principle:

(1) High frequency inverter

High-frequency inverter uses high-frequency conversion technology to convert low-voltage direct current into high-frequency low-voltage alternating current, and then boosts the voltage through the high-frequency transformer, and then passes through the high-frequency rectifier filter circuit, and the output is generally 220V power frequency alternating current for load use.

(2) Low frequency inverter

The low frequency inverter is a DC/AC converter that converts a DC power source (e.g., a battery pack) into an AC power source with a stabilized output voltage and frequency through the use of high-frequency pulse-width modulation technology and microcomputer control technology. This inverter has a high conversion efficiency of over 80% at full load and is capable of driving non-linear loads.

Classification by installed use

(1)Off-grid inverter

An off-grid inverter is an inverter that converts DC power generated by distributed power sources such as solar panels, wind turbines, etc. into AC power, then boosts the voltage through a transformer, then selects the maximum power point through a low-voltage DC switch (MPPT), and finally outputs it to the grid or load.

(2)On grid inverters

A grid-connected inverter is an inverter that converts DC power generated by distributed power sources such as solar panels, wind turbines, etc. into AC power, then boosts the voltage through a transformer, then selects the maximum power point through a low-voltage DC switch (MPPT), and finally outputs it to an inverter that is connected to the power grid.

(3)On/Off grid hybrid inverter

A hybrid inverter is an inverter that combines the functions of an off-grid inverter and a grid-connected inverter. Hybrid inverters can be operated either independently in solar power systems or integrated into large power grids.

off grid solar inverter working principle
on grid solar inverter working principle

Classification by Charging Function

(1)Pure DC-AC inverter (no charging function)

A DC/AC inverter is a power electronic component (Power Inverter or Inverter) that converts DC power into AC power, mainly consisting of by inverter bridge, control logic and filter circuit. The main function of the DC/AC converter used in electric vehicles is to convert the DC power of the HV into AC power for the motor/generator.

(2)Inverter with utility charging function (with utility charging function)

When the inverter is finished discharging the battery, it can charge the battery with the utility 220V, which is suitable for the use of families and units in the areas where there is often a lack of electricity to solve the trouble of power outage.

(3)Inverter with utility and solar charging function (with utility and solar charging function)

This inverter can not only charge the battery with utility power, but also can be connected to the solar panel to charge the battery through the internal controller, increasing the channels of energy supply to the battery.

As a leading manufacturer in the field of inverter technology, our company stands at the forefront of innovation, delivering cutting-edge solutions to meet the evolving demands of diverse industries. With a commitment to excellence and a focus on quality, we strive to provide inverters that not only meet but exceed the expectations of our customers worldwide. From single-phase to three-phase, square wave to sine wave, and off-grid to on-grid applications, our comprehensive range of inverters caters to a multitude of needs with precision and reliability. Partner with us for your inverter requirements, and experience the difference that our expertise and dedication can make to your projects.

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